Students act as mining engineers and simulate ore mining production by using …

Students act as mining engineers and simulate ore mining production by using chocolate chip cookies. They focus on the cost-benefit analysis of the chocolate ore production throughout the simulation, which helps them understand the cost of production. As students “mine” with tools such as paperclips and toothpicks, they keep records of their costs—land (cookie), equipment used, cookie size before and after production, and time spent. While the goal is to make as much profit as possible, other costs and goals are taken into consideration—as in real-world mining engineering. For example, mining engineers also consider the resulting amount of destruction to the lithosphere when deciding the best method to obtain ore. Thus, a line item for land reclamation cost is included from the beginning. A provided worksheet serves as a profit and loss statement.

A brief refresher on the Cartesian plane includes how points are written …

A brief refresher on the Cartesian plane includes how points are written in (x, y) format and oriented to the axes, and which directions are positive and negative. Then students learn about what it means for a relation to be a function and how to determine domain and range of a set of data points.

Students learn about the mathematical characteristics and reflective property of ellipses by …

Students learn about the mathematical characteristics and reflective property of ellipses by building their own elliptical-shaped pool tables. After a slide presentation introduction to ellipses, student “engineering teams” follow the steps of the engineering design process to develop prototypes, which they research, plan, sketch, build, test, refine, and then demonstrate, compare and share with the class. Using these tables as models to explore the geometric shape of ellipses, they experience how particles rebound off the curved ellipse sides and what happens if particles travel through the foci. They learn that if a particle travels through one focal point, then it will travel through the second focal point regardless of what direction the particle travels.

Elementary Algebra is designed to meet the scope and sequence requirements of …

Elementary Algebra is designed to meet the scope and sequence requirements of a one-semester elementary algebra course. The book’s organization makes it easy to adapt to a variety of course syllabi. The text expands on the fundamental concepts of algebra while addressing the needs of students with diverse backgrounds and learning styles. Each topic builds upon previously developed material to demonstrate the cohesiveness and structure of mathematics.

Learn about graphing polynomials. The shape of the curve changes as the …

Learn about graphing polynomials. The shape of the curve changes as the constants are adjusted. View the curves for the individual terms (e.g. y=bx ) to see how they add to generate the polynomial curve.

Learn about graphing polynomials. The shape of the curve changes as the …

Learn about graphing polynomials. The shape of the curve changes as the constants are adjusted. View the curves for the individual terms (e.g. y=bx ) to see how they add to generate the polynomial curve.

Through this lesson and its series of hands-on mini-activities, students answer the …

Through this lesson and its series of hands-on mini-activities, students answer the question: How can we investigate and measure the inside of an object or its structure if we cannot take it apart? Unlike the destructive nuclear weapon test (!), nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are able to accomplish this. After an introductory slide presentation, small groups rotate through five mini-activity stations: 1) applying Maxwell’s equations, 2) generating currents, 3) creating magnetic fields, 4) solving a system of equations, and 5) understanding why the finite element method (FEM) is important. Through the short experiments, students become familiar with the science and physics being used and make the mathematical connections. They explore components of NDE and see how engineers find unseen flaws and cracks in materials that make aircraft. A pre/post quiz, slide presentation and worksheet are included.

Students learn about four forms of equations: direct variation, slope-intercept form, standard …

Students learn about four forms of equations: direct variation, slope-intercept form, standard form and point-slope form. They graph and complete problem sets for each, converting from one form of equation to another, and learning the benefits and uses of each.

This module consolidates and expands upon students understanding of equivalent expressions as …

This module consolidates and expands upon students understanding of equivalent expressions as they apply the properties of operations to write expressions in both standard form and in factored form. They use linear equations to solve unknown angle problems and other problems presented within context to understand that solving algebraic equations is all about the numbers. Students use the number line to understand the properties of inequality and recognize when to preserve the inequality and when to reverse the inequality when solving problems leading to inequalities. They interpret solutions within the context of problems. Students extend their sixth-grade study of geometric figures and the relationships between them as they apply their work with expressions and equations to solve problems involving area of a circle and composite area in the plane, as well as volume and surface area of right prisms.

In Module 4, students extend what they already know about unit rates …

In Module 4, students extend what they already know about unit rates and proportional relationships to linear equations and their graphs. Students understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations in this module. Students learn to apply the skills they acquired in Grades 6 and 7, with respect to symbolic notation and properties of equality to transcribe and solve equations in one variable and then in two variables.

Students learn about an important characteristic of lines: their slopes. Slope can …

Students learn about an important characteristic of lines: their slopes. Slope can be determined either in graphical or algebraic form. Slope can also be described as positive, negative, zero or undefined. Students get an explanation of when and how these different types of slope occur. Finally, they learn how slope relates to parallel and perpendicular lines. When two lines are parallel, they have the same slope and when they are perpendicular their slopes are negative reciprocals of one another.

Using thermometers, cotton balls, string and water, students make simple psychrometers—a tool …

Using thermometers, cotton balls, string and water, students make simple psychrometers—a tool that measures humidity. They learn the difference between relative humidity (the ratio of water vapor content to water vapor carrying capacity) and dew point (the temperature at which dew forms). Teams collect data using their homemade psychrometers and then calculate relative humidity inside and outside, comparing their results to an off-the-shelf psychrometer (if available). A lab worksheet is provided for data collection and calculation. As a real-world connection, students learn that humidity and air density is taken into consideration by engineers for many design projects. To conclude, they answer and discuss analysis and application questions.

Students use latex tubes and bicycle pumps to conduct experiments to gather …

Students use latex tubes and bicycle pumps to conduct experiments to gather data about the relationship between latex strength and air pressure. Then they use this data to extrapolate latex strength to the size of latex tubing that would be needed in modern passenger sedans to serve as hybrid vehicle accelerators, thus answering the engineering design challenge question posed in the first lesson of this unit. Students input data into Excel spreadsheets and generate best fit lines by the selection of two data points from their experimental research data. They discuss the y-intercept and slope as it pertains to the mathematical model they generated. Students use the slope of the line to interpret the data collected. Then they extrapolate with this information to predict the latex dimensions that would be required for a full-size hydraulic accumulator installed in a passenger vehicle.

Students measure the relative intensity of a magnetic field as a function …

Students measure the relative intensity of a magnetic field as a function of distance. They place a permanent magnet selected distances from a compass, measure the deflection, and use the gathered data to compute the relative magnetic field strength. Based on their findings, students create mathematical models and use the models to calculate the field strength at the edge of the magnet. They use the periodic table to predict magnetism. Finally, students create posters to communicate the details their findings. This activity guides students to think more deeply about magnetism and the modeling of fields while practicing data collection and analysis. An equations handout and two grading rubrics are provided.

Students apply high school-level differential calculus and physics to the design of …

Students apply high school-level differential calculus and physics to the design of two-dimensional roller coasters in which the friction force is considered, as explained in the associated lesson. In a challenge the mirrors real-world engineering, the designed roller coaster paths must be made from at least five differentiable functions that are put together such that the resulting piecewise curving path is differentiable at all points. Once designed mathematically, teams build and test small-sized prototype models of the exact designs using foam pipe wrap insulation as the roller coaster track channel with marbles as the ride carts.

Students obtain a basic understanding of microfluidic devices, how they are developed …

Students obtain a basic understanding of microfluidic devices, how they are developed and their uses in the medical field. After conducting the associated activity, they watch a video clip and learn about flow rate and how this relates to the speed at which medicine takes effect in the body. What they learn contributes to their ongoing objective to answer the challenge question presented in lesson 1 of this unit. They conclude by solving flow rate problems provided on a worksheet.

My Math GPS: Elementary Algebra Guided Problem Solving is a textbook that …

My Math GPS: Elementary Algebra Guided Problem Solving is a textbook that aligns to the CUNY Elementary Algebra Learning Objectives that are tested on the CUNY Elementary Algebra Final Exam (CEAFE). This book contextualizes arithmetic skills into Elementary Algebra content using a problem-solving pedagogy. Classroom assessments and online homework are available from the authors.

In order to assist educators with the implementation of the Common Core, …

In order to assist educators with the implementation of the Common Core, the New York State Education Department provides curricular modules in P-12 English Language Arts and Mathematics that schools and districts can adopt or adapt for local purposes. The full year of Algebra I curriculum is available below.

See how the equation form of Ohm's law relates to a simple …

See how the equation form of Ohm's law relates to a simple circuit. Adjust the voltage and resistance, and see the current change according to Ohm's law. The sizes of the symbols in the equation change to match the circuit diagram.

Student groups work with manipulatives—pencils and trays—to maximize various quantities of a …

Student groups work with manipulatives—pencils and trays—to maximize various quantities of a system. They work through three linear optimization problems, each with different constraints. After arriving at a solution, they construct mathematical arguments for why their solutions are the best ones before attempting to maximize a different quantity. To conclude, students think of real-world and engineering space optimization examples—a frequently encountered situation in which the limitation is the amount of space available. It is suggested that students conduct this activity before the associated lesson, Linear Programming, although either order is acceptable.

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